High Throughput CMOS Sensing Platforms for Life Science Applications
Ebrahim Ghafar-Zadeh, Sebastian Magierowski
Recent advances in micro- and nanotechnologies have enabled the development of High-Throughput Screening (HTS) techniques for various applications including drug discovery. Owing to the seminal advances in micro-fabrication technologies, HTS is moving towards massively parallel, miniaturized, and label free platforms. A state-of-the-art DNA sequencing platform featuring millions of Ion-Selective Field Effect Transistors (ISFETs) has convincingly demonstrated the advantage of using standard microelectronic technologies such as Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process in HTS applications. Similarly, many researchers have addressed the challenge of developing HTS systems for monitoring cellular activities on a single chip. Due to the significant advantages of CMOS-based biosensors, such as non-invasive long term recordings, fast response times and label free processes, they have been widely applied in many biological and medical fields concerning the study of living-cell samples such as neural cell recording and stimulation, monitoring metabolic activity, cell manipulation, and extracellular pH monitoring, nano-pore DNA sequencing and NMR spectroscopy Among various CMOS sensing techniques, we have reported the advantages of capacitive sensors as low complexity, high precision, label free sensing methods for monitoring cellular activities such as cell viability, proliferation and morphology Also we investigated the advantages of nano-pore and pH ISFET sensors for DNA sequencing which have revolutionized DNA sequencing technologies. Furthermore, we elaborate the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors a non-invasive method for drug discovery.